You're reading an old version of this documentation.
For the latest stable release version, please have a look at master.

# Bits

## Description

The `Bits` type corresponds to a vector of bits that does not convey any arithmetic meaning.

## Declaration

The syntax to declare a bit vector is as follows: (everything between [] is optional)

Syntax

Description

Return

Bits [()]

Create a BitVector, bits count is inferred

Bits

Bits(x bits)

Create a BitVector with x bits

Bits

B(value: Int[, x bits])

Create a BitVector with x bits assigned with ‘value’

Bits

B”[[size’]base]value”

Create a BitVector assigned with ‘value’ (Base: ‘h’, ‘d’, ‘o’, ‘b’)

Bits

B([x bits,] element, …)

Create a BitVector assigned with the value specified by elements

Bits

```// Declaration
val myBits  = Bits()     // the size is inferred
val myBits1 = Bits(32 bits)
val myBits2 = B(25, 8 bits)
val myBits3 = B"8'xFF"   // Base could be x,h (base 16)
//               d   (base 10)
//               o   (base 8)
//               b   (base 2)
val myBits4 = B"1001_0011"  // _ can be used for readability

// Element
val myBits5 = B(8 bits, default -> True) // "11111111"
val myBits6 = B(8 bits, (7 downto 5) -> B"101", 4 -> true, 3 -> True, default -> false ) // "10111000"
val myBits7 = Bits(8 bits)
myBits7 := (7 -> true, default -> false) // "10000000" (For assignement purposes, you can omit the B)
```

## Operators

The following operators are available for the `Bits` type

### Logic

Operator

Description

Return type

~x

Bitwise NOT

Bits(w(x) bits)

x & y

Bitwise AND

Bits(w(xy) bits)

x | y

Bitwise OR

Bits(w(xy) bits)

x ^ y

Bitwise XOR

Bits(w(xy) bits)

x.xorR

XOR all bits of x

Bool

x.orR

OR all bits of x

Bool

x.andR

AND all bits of x

Bool

x >> y

Logical shift right, y: Int

Bits(w(x) - y bits)

x >> y

Logical shift right, y: UInt

Bits(w(x) bits)

x << y

Logical shift left, y: Int

Bits(w(x) + y bits)

x << y

Logical shift left, y: UInt

Bits(w(x) + max(y) bits)

x |>> y

Logical shift right, y: Int/UInt

Bits(w(x) bits)

x |<< y

Logical shift left, y: Int/UInt

Bits(w(x) bits)

x.rotateLeft(y)

Logical left rotation, y: UInt/Int

Bits(w(x) bits)

x.rotateRight(y)

Logical right rotation, y: UInt/Int

Bits(w(x) bits)

x.clearAll[()]

Clear all bits

x.setAll[()]

Set all bits

x.setAllTo(value: Boolean)

Set all bits to the given Boolean value

x.setAllTo(value: Bool)

Set all bits to the given Bool value

```// Bitwise operator
val a, b, c = Bits(32 bits)
c := ~(a & b) //  Inverse(a AND b)

val all_1 = a.andR // Check that all bit are equal to 1

// Logical shift
val bits_10bits = bits_8bits << 2  // shift left (result on 10 bits)
val shift_8bits = bits_8bits |<< 2 // shift left (result on 8 bits)

// Logical rotation
val myBits = bits_8bits.rotateLeft(3) // left bit rotation

// Set/clear
val a = B"8'x42"
when(cond){
a.setAll() // set all bits to True when cond is True
}
```

### Comparison

Operator

Description

Return type

x === y

Equality

Bool

x =/= y

Inequality

Bool

```when(myBits === 3){
}

when(myBits_32 =/= B"32'x44332211"){
}
```

### Type cast

Operator

Description

Return

x.asBits

Binary cast in Bits

Bits(w(x) bits)

x.asUInt

Binary cast in UInt

UInt(w(x) bits)

x.asSInt

Binary cast in SInt

SInt(w(x) bits)

x.asBools

Cast into a array of Bool

Vec(Bool, w(x))

B(x: T)

Cast a Data into Bits

Bits(w(x) bits)

To cast a Bool, UInt or a SInt into a Bits, you can use `B(something)`

```// cast a Bits to SInt
val mySInt = myBits.asSInt

// create a Vector of bool
val myVec = myBits.asBools

// Cast a SInt to Bits
val myBits = B(mySInt)
```

### Bit extraction

Operator

Description

Return

x(y)

Bool

x(hi,lo)

Read bitfield, hi: Int, lo: Int

Bits(hi-lo+1 bits)

x(offset,width bits)

Read bitfield, offset: UInt, width: Int

Bits(width bits)

x(range)

Read a range of bit. Ex : myBits(4 downto 2)

Bits(range bits)

x(y) := z

Assign bits, y: Int/UInt

Bool

x(offset, width bits) := z

Assign bitfield, offset: UInt, width: Int

Bits(width bits)

x(range) := z

Assign a range of bit. Ex : myBits(4 downto 2) := B”010”

Bits(range bits)

```// get the element at the index 4
val myBool = myBits(4)

// assign
myBits(1) := True

// Range
val myBits_8bits = myBits_16bits(7 downto 0)
val myBits_7bits = myBits_16bits(0 to 6)
val myBits_6bits = myBits_16Bits(0 until 6)

myBits_8bits(3 downto 0) := myBits_4bits
```

### Misc

Operator

Description

Return

x.getWidth

Return bitcount

Int

x.range

Return the range (x.high downto 0)

Range

x.high

Return the upper bound of the type x

Int

x.msb

Return the most significant bit

Bool

x.lsb

Return the least significant bit

Bool

x ## y

Concatenate, x->high, y->low

Bits(w(x) + w(y) bits)

x.subdivideIn(y slices)

Subdivide x in y slices, y: Int

Vec(Bits, y)

x.subdivideIn(y bits)

Subdivide x in multiple slices of y bits, y: Int

Vec(Bits, w(x)/y)

x.resize(y)

Return a resized copy of x, if enlarged, it is filled with zero, y: Int

Bits(y bits)

x.resized

Return a version of x which is allowed to be automatically resized were needed

Bits(w(x) bits)

x.resizeLeft(x)

Resize by keeping MSB at the same place, x:Int

Bits(x bits)

```println(myBits_32bits.getWidth) // 32

myBool := myBits.lsb  // equivalent to myBits(0)

// concatenation
myBits_24bits := bits_8bits_1 ## bits_8bits_2 ## bits_8bits_3

// Subdivide
val sel = UInt(2 bits)
val myBitsWord = myBits_128bits.subdivideIn(32 bits)(sel)
// sel = 0 => myBitsWord = myBits_128bits(127 downto 96)
// sel = 1 => myBitsWord = myBits_128bits( 95 downto 64)
// sel = 2 => myBitsWord = myBits_128bits( 63 downto 32)
// sel = 3 => myBitsWord = myBits_128bits( 31 downto  0)

// if you want to access in a reverse order you can do
val myVector   = myBits_128bits.subdivideIn(32 bits).reverse
val myBitsWord = myVector(sel)

// Resize
myBits_32bits := B"32'x112233344"
myBits_8bits  := myBits_32bits.resized       // automatic resize (myBits_8bits = 0x44)
myBits_8bits  := myBits_32bits.resize(8)     // resize to 8 bits (myBits_8bits = 0x44)
myBits_8bits  := myBits_32bits.resizeLeft(8) // resize to 8 bits (myBits_8bits = 0x11)
```